Stage 4 represents the clinical stage of the disease, and its features are high albuminuria, more than 200 mg per day, the constant presence of protein in the urine. Blood pressure rises, hypoproteinemia and edema develop. At this stage, the glomerular filtration rate decreases by 1 ml per minute every month. Stage 5 is characterized by renal failure. Continuous excretion of protein in the urine leads to buy xeloda online diabetic nephropathy, a significant increase in the basement membrane and the appearance of necrotic glomeruli due to narrowing of the capillary lumen in the tissues of the kidneys. As a result, the filtering function of the kidneys gradually decreases, which leads to severe renal failure.
In most patients, as a result, the glomerular filtration rate decreases to 10 ml per minute, an increase in serum creatinine and urea nitrogen is accompanied by severe arterial hypertension, edema, and hypoproteinemia. These are very serious complications. People with diabetes need to pay close attention to the listed stages of the disease and take all possible measures to prevent diabetic nephropathy.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of the history, examination of the patient and the results of urinalysis - total and albumin / creatinine. Nephropathy is always suspected in diabetics with proteinuria. The following factors indicate the development of xeloda disorders not associated with diabetes.
All these phenomena are taken into account in the differential diagnosis to identify other pathologies of the kidneys. Important in the diagnosis is the study of the amount of protein in the urine. Sometimes unreliable results can be obtained if a person has a very developed muscular system and before passing urine for analysis, he performed intense physical exercises. A kidney biopsy can help confirm the diagnosis, but this test is rarely done. diabetic nephropathy.
So, the disease develops as kidney damage due to diabetes. If diabetes is left untreated, it can eventually lead to severe kidney failure. In the early stages, when albumin levels are elevated in the urine, drugs are used to normalize blood pressure, such as ACE inhibitors that can reduce urinary protein leakage. In the later stages of the development of such an ailment as diabetic nephropathy, treatment includes correction of blood sugar and cholesterol levels, control of blood pressure.
Timely examination and adequate treatment can slow down the progression of the disease and prevent the development of renal failure. Since diabetic nephropathy is quite common among diabetics, regular examinations of this group of people are very important.
The main cause of kidney damage in people with diabetes is an uncontrolled increase in blood sugar levels. Mandatory control of this indicator with insulin and other hypoglycemic drugs, as well as proper nutrition, help prevent or slow down the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diet is of great importance in this, and it provides for fractional nutrition, at least five meals a day in small portions, an emphasis on vegetables, especially for overweight people, and the rejection of sugar in favor of its substitutes. It is important to order capecitabine online a varied diet with approximately the same amount of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
It is reliably known that diabetic nephropathy develops mainly in patients who do not pay due attention to the control of sugar levels. Intensive therapy can reverse the process of glomerular hypertrophy and delay the development of microalbuminuria, preventing kidney damage.
Regular monitoring of blood pressure levels helps protect diabetics from complications such as kidney and heart disease. The data show that for every 10 mmHg increase in blood pressure. increases the risk of developing nephropathy by 10-12%. Ideally, systolic pressure should be maintained at a level no higher than 120 mm Hg, and diastolic - ne more than 80 mm Hg.